HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY
The hip replacement surgery is used to replace a part of pelvis and femur which form the hip joint. It is also known as hip arthroplasty.
TYPES OF HIP REPLACEMENT SURGERY
There are three types of hip replacement surgery.
- Total hip replacement
In this type of surgery, the damaged part of hip is replaced with the artificial implant. Socket is replaced with a durable plastic cup which may or may not include a metal titanium shell. Your femoral head is removed and replaced with ball made up of ceramic or metal alloy. The ball is attached to the metal stem which is inserted from top of femur.
- Partial hip replacement
It involve the replacement of one side of hip joint, femoral head instead of both side same as in total hip replacement. It is very common for older patients who have fractured hip.
- Hip resurfacing of femoral head and socket is performed on young patients.
Who needs surgery?
- Muscle stiffness which restricts the movement, and makes it difficult to walk.
- Irresistible pain in performing everyday activities.
The surgery is performed under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia.
General hip replacement procedure:
You will be given hospital dress to wear during the operation. An IV line is made on the hip. Positioned on operating table. Urinary catheter is inserted after you sleep. Anesthesiologist will examine your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and blood oxygen level during the surgery. The area of surgery is cleaned with antiseptic solution. The surgeon will make the cut in hip. The surgeon will remove the damaged hip joint and replace with prosthesis. The hip prosthesis is made up of a stem which goes in thighbone i.e. femur, head joint i.e. ball that fit into the stem and cup which inserted in socket of hip joint. The stem and cup is made up of metal. Ball is made up of metal or ceramic. Cup has liner made of plastic or ceramic.
There are two types of artificial hip prostheses-
- Cemented prostheses- This is attached to bone with surgical cement.
- Uncemented prostheses- This attaches to bone with porous surface. The bone grows onto this surface to get attached to prosthesis.
Then the cut is closed with stitches. Drain is placed on the cut area to remove the fluid. At last a sterlized bandage or dressing is applied at the operated area.
There are various risk associated to hip replacement:
- Blood clot- The clot may form in leg after the surgery.
- Infection- The infection may occur at the position of cut or in the deeper tissue near the new hip.
- Dislocation- Some specific positions may cause the new joint ball to dislocate, in first few months post surgery.