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Liver Cancer treatment through surgeryxchange

LIVER CANCER

Liver cancer is the cancer that starts in the cells of your liver. Your liver is a football-sized organ that assembles in the upper right part of abdomen, beneath your diaphragm and above your stomach.

Numerous types of cancer can formulate in the liver from which the most common type of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma, which begins in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte). Other types of liver cancer, such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma, are very uncommon.

TYPES:

  1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very common type of primary liver cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs mainly in people with chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection.

  1. Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is cancer that creates in the bile duct, that carry the digestive fluid bile. It connects your liver to your gallbladder and to your small intestine. This condition, also known as bile duct cancer, is an uncommon form of cancer that occurs mostly in people older than age 50, though it can occur at any age.

SYMPTOMS:

  • Jaundice
  • Penetratingly itchy skin
  • White-colored stools
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unplanned weight loss

CAUSES:

It is not known what the roots of most cases of liver cancer are. But in some cases, the cause is known. For example, chronic infection with certain hepatitis viruses can cause liver cancer.

Liver cancer happens when liver cells develop changes in their DNA the material that provides instructions for every chemical process in your body. DNA mutations cause changes in these instructions. One result is that cells may begin to grow out of control and eventually form a tumor which is a mass of cancerous cells.

RISK FACTORS:

Elements that rise the risk of liver cancer contain:

  • Prolonged infection with HBV or HCV. Prolonged infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) rises risk of liver cancer.
  • Cirrhosis. This enhancing and irretrievable condition causes scar tissue to form in liver and spreads the possibilities of developing the liver cancer.
  • Some inherited liver diseases. Liver illness that increase the risk of liver cancer.
  • Diabetes.People with this blood sugar condition have a greater risk of liver cancer than those who don’t have diabetes.
  • Fatty liver disease. The growth of fat in the liver upsurges the risk of liver cancer.
  • Extreme alcohol consumption. Drinking more than an average amount of alcohol daily over many years can lead to liver damage and increases the risk of liver cancer.

PREVENTION:

Decrease the possibility of cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is marking of the liver, and it increases the risk of liver cancer. You can decrease the risk of cirrhosis if you:

  • Drink alcohol in control, if at all.
  • Maintain good physical shape.

Get vaccinated against hepatitis B

You can decrease your risk of hepatitis B by getting the hepatitis B vaccine, which offers more than 90 percent security for both adults and children. The vaccine can be given to everyone, to those with compromised immune systems.

Take steps to prevent hepatitis C

No vaccination for hepatitis C subsists, but you can reduce your risk of infection.

  • You should check the health status of any sexual partner.
  • Do not use intravenous (IV) medication, but if you have to do, then use a clean needle.
  • Look for a safe, clean shops when you get a piercing or tattoo.

TEST AND TREATMENT:

ANALYZE LIVER CANCER

Assessments and techniques used to diagnose liver cancer contain:

  • Blood tests.
  • Imaging tests.
  • Taking out a sample of liver tissue for testing.

SHAPING THE EXTENT OF CANCER

Once the liver cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will work to check the stage of cancer. The stage tests helps to determine the size and location of cancer and whether it has spread. The image tests like CT, MRI and bone scan are used to get information about liver cancer stage.

 TREATMENT:

Liver cancer treatment options may include:

  • Surgery to eliminate a part of the liver. In some cases, doctor may recommend fractional hepatectomy, i.e. to remove the liver cancer and a small part of healthy tissue that ambiances it if your tumor is small and your liver function is good.
  • Liver transplant surgery. During the surgery, your unhealthy liver is removed and replaced with a healthy liver from a donor. Liver transplant surgery is only recommended for a small percentage of patients with early-stage liver cancer.
  • Freezing cancer cells. Cryoablation uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. During the procedure, your doctor puts an instrument comprising of liquid nitrogen directly onto liver tumors. Ultrasound images are used to help the cryoprobe and monitor the freezing of the cells.
  • Heating cancer cells. In a practice which is called radiofrequency ablation, an electric current is used to heat and damage the cancer cells. Using an ultrasound or CT scan, your medical practitioner inserts one or more thin needles into small cuts in your abdomen. When the needles reach the tumor, they are heated with an electric current, destroying the cancer cells.
  • Injecting alcohol into the tumor. During alcohol injection, pure alcohol is injected directly into tumors, either through the skin or during an operation. Alcohol causes the tumor cells to die.
  • Injecting chemotherapy drugs into the liver. Chemotherapy treatment which deliveries strong anti-cancer medicine directly to the liver. During the process, chemotherapy drugs are injected into the hepatic artery and then the artery is blocked. This helps to block the blood flow to the cancer cells and to send chemotherapy drugs to the cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy. This treatment uses high-powered energy beams to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. During the treatment, you lie down on a table and a machine guides the energy beams at an exact point on your body. Radiation therapy for liver cancer may involve a technique called stereotactic radiosurgery that simultaneously emphases many beams of radiation at one point in the body.
  • Targeted drug therapy. Targeted drugs work by hindering with a tumor’s ability to produce new blood vessels.

To know the cost of liver cancer treatment click here-

https://surgeryxchange.com/best/liver-cancer-treatments-cost-in-bangalore

radiation therapy- SurgeryXchange

When might radiation therapy be useful?
Radiation therapy includes of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy or internal radiation therapy.
Radiation therapy consists high-energy rays (such as x-rays) or particles to kill cancer cells.Radiation therapy is a an alternate therapy to chemotherapy which includes less side effects.
Depending on the level of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and other factors, radiation therapy might be used:
As the priciple treatment, especially if the lung tumor can’t be eliminated because of its magnitude and area, if a person isn’t healthy enough for surgery. After surgery to try to kill any small areas of cancer that surgery might have failed.
Prior to surgery along with chemotherapy to try to diminish a lung tumor to make it easier to operate on.
To treat a momo area of cancer spread, such as a cancer cells present in the brain or an adrenal gland.
To relieve symptoms of improved NSCLC such as pain, bleeding, trouble swallowing, cough, or problems caused by spread to other parts such as the brain. For example, brachytherapy is most frequently used to support relieve blockage of large cancer tissues.

There are two types of radiation therapy:
External beam radiation therapy
Brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy)

External beam radiation therapy (EBRT) is directed to the cancer cells, radiation from outside the body on the cancer. This is the type of radiation therapy most frequently used to treat NSCLC or its invade to other organs.
Prior to when treatment starts, the radiation team will take careful steps to calculate the exact angles for aiming the radiation beams and the proper quantity of radiation and the radiation therapy is implimented. the external beam is effetive like chemotherapy with less side effects. Treatment is much like similar to getting an x-ray, but the radiation dose is stronger and effective. The therapy itself is painless. Each treatment takes only a few minutes.

Brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy)
Brachytherapy is a part of radiation therapy.
Brachytherapy is sometimes used to destroy tumors in the airway to relieve symptoms.For this type of treatment, the physician places a small source of radioactive material (often in the structure of mini pellets) directly into the cancer or into the airway next to the tumor. This is mostly done through a bronchoscope, but it may also be done during surgery. The radiation travels only a little distance from the source, limiting the results on surrounding healthy tissues. The radiation source is removed after a short time. Less often, small radioactive particles are left in place permanently, and the radiation gets weaker over several weeks. this radiation therapy is top of the line which stands to be the best therapy.

What is Oncology?

23/06/2017 | Oncology | No Comments

Remarkable progress has been made in treatment of cancer and understanding of it in India. With the ability to cure this dreadful condition and to control it in the past few decades, including surgical techniques, radiation therapies and advanced imaging, oncologists can now see what is occurring at cellular levels to facilitate containing the spread of cancer. Success will follow as oncologists are united across geography in their pursuit to help patients overcome the menace of cancer.

What is Oncology?
Oncology is a medical science that deals with Cancer. It is a large set of diseases that pertains to abnormal growth of cells which has the potential to spread to various parts of the body. These rapidly growing cells attack adjoining parts of the body and subsequently affect other organs in the body as well. Neoplasms or malignant tumors are cells of abnormal growth that results in formation of lumps of mass. Approximately 14 million new cases of cancer were reported in 2012 and over the next 20 years it is expected to increase by 70%. In 2012 was 8.2 million cancer-related deaths were recorded.
Oncology Treatments in India and Cost
India is a preferred destination for cancer treatment and procedures. Oncology treatment costs in India are not only affordable but also are a fraction of what you normally pay in the developed countries.
Oncology/Cancer Treatments in India
Oncology treatment in India one of the best patients can get. Cancer surgery in India is not only among the best in the world but is also relatively cheaper when compared to most of the developed countries.
Prostate Cancer Surgery in India
One of the most common dreaded non-skin cancer is Prostate cancer. It is affecting men across around the world regardless of their nationalities. India offers low cost Prostate cancer surgery and yet is the best in quality which includes robotic surgery. Cancer treatments in India include a variety of procedures to deliver pain-free and successful results. Most of the best cancer hospitals and reputed surgeons in India are technically aware and adept of emerging trends. Apart from open surgeries, a variety of treatments now provides High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) to treat prostate cancer and minimally invasive surgery alternatives in India. This advanced technique does not need to remove prostate gland in entirety. Instead of which ultrasound beams are passed by robotic arm through rectum to destroy & evaporate all cells of prostate cancer
Liver Cancer
It is the Liver that filters blood continuously and in turn circulates converted nutrients and drugs absorbed from digestion as chemical elements that are ready-to-use. Apart from this the liver also performs numerous functions such as removing chemical wastes from blood stream and toxins. As the blood must essentially pass through the liver, it becomes vulnerable to cancer cells which are often found in the bloodstream.

Pancreatic Cancer
It typically spreads rapidly, and is rarely seen in early stages which is why it is a major cause of cancer death. Symptoms and Signs of disease may not be seen until cancer is in advanced stages. Pancreatic enzymes aid the secretion of hormones that regulate metabolism of sugar digestion and therefore complete surgical removal is almost impossible.
Gallbladder Cancer
Gallbladder Cancer begins in the gallbladder and there are good chances of cure if it is detected in early stages. It is however very difficult to diagnose in early stages as no specific signs or symptoms are produced. Gallbladders are relatively hidden under cover and store bile produced by liver. Thus it makes it really easy for gallbladder cancer to go unnoticed.
Cervical Cancer
Cervix is present at the lower part of the uterus opening into the vagina. The key to successful treatment is early detection and can be diagnosed easily by a Pap and smear test. It is one of the most common types of cancer found worldwide among women. Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. However it is caused by a virus named Human Papillomavirus or HPV. This virus spread through sexual contact.
Ovarian Cancer
Starting in the ovary, Cells of Ovarian Cancer have the ability to invade or spread other parts of the body. Warning signals of this include cramps or ongoing pains in back or belly, abnormal vaginal bleeding and bloating, nausea. However, women who have ovulated more during their lifetime are at high risk of Ovarian Cancer. This depends largely upon the stage of cancer. Treatment for Ovarian Cancer includes surgery or chemotherapy.

Bone Cancer
This cancer can begin in any bone of the body and is an uncommon cancer. However, generally Bone Cancers are found to affect long bones of the legs and arms. Various types of bone cancers exist. Certain type of cancers occur primarily among children, while others mostly affect adults.
Oral Cancer
Oral Cancers largely appear as sore or growth in mouth which persists. Most commonly Oral Cancers include cancer of the cheeks, lips, floor of mouth, tongue, hard and soft palate, sinuses & pharynx which can be dangerous if not diagnosed & treated in early stages. Some of the Oral Cancer symptoms include swellings, thickenings, rough spots, bumps, lumps eroded areas on gums, crusts, lips or inside mouth areas, white or speckled patches, Velvety red, pain or tenderness, unexplained bleeding numbness or loss of feeling in mouth or neck areas or face are also possible warning signs.

Oncology

23/06/2017 | Oncology | No Comments

Oncology-surgeryXchange

 

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer (other than skin cancers) and the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women.

Screening with mammography is recommended based on age, risk factors and overall benefit to the patient. Large Trials conducted in the Western population have shown about a 20% reduction in the likelihood of dying from breast cancer with annual screening mammography. 

 

Typically, this is recommended starting at age 50, every other year for women at average risk. Between 40-50 years of age, the recommendations are individualized based on the risk factors for the patient. A baseline at age 40 and then every 2-3 years until age 50 may be a reasonable option. The age of cut off for mammography is not clear. It is not so much the numerical age as the physiologic age of the patient that matters. However, there is no clear-cut benefit beyond age 75.

This does not apply to high-risk patients such as patients with a gene e.g., BRCA mutation who may need MRI screening yearly along with mammography starting at earlier ages. Patents with 2-4 fold increase risk of breast cancer should also consider yearly mammogram between ages of 50-75 and every other year starting at age 40.

Risk factors typically include genetic mutations such as BRCA, early onset of menstrual cycles, late onset of menopause, late or no childbirths etc. 

So, why the controversy regarding screening when studies have shown a decrease in mortality? Some of this comes from the potential complications with all screening, such as false positive mammogram possibly leading to anxiety, more frequent imaging, unnecessary biopsies etc. there is a small radiation exposure associated with mammography which in itself can lead to a small risk of breast cancer over a number of years

When routine mammographic screening was first introduced in the US, there was an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, more cancers were diagnosed which has led to the concept of “over diagnosis”. Are we diagnosing small cancers, which may never truly cause any problems during the life span of a woman? Currently, there are no methods available to determine which early cancers may progress to actually cause life-threatening problems in a woman.

This is of major concern as it may lead to treatments such as surgery, radiation etc which may result in harm.

Mortality from breast cancer has been declining over the last few years; some of this has been attributed to screening, but also to the major advances in treatment. The argument is made that patients diagnosed without screening will also likely survive breast cancer with modern day treatments.

However this generalization does not take into account that without awareness of screening and education as well as close relationship with a family physician or gynecologist many of these cancers may be diagnosed at a late stage leading to increased mortality once again from breast cancer. We have made too much progress to return to Ground zero. There should be a well thought out, individualized plan for each woman in conjunction with her Primary provider taking into account her risk and preferences. Mammography guidelines serve as a good template for such a tailored plan.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common cancer (other than skin cancers) and the second most common cause of cancer deaths among women.

Screening with mammography is recommended based on age, risk factors and overall benefit to the patient. Large Trials conducted in the Western population have shown about a 20% reduction in the likelihood of dying from breast cancer with annual screening mammography. 

 

Typically, this is recommended starting at age 50, every other year for women at average risk. Between 40-50 years of age, the recommendations are individualized based on the risk factors for the patient. A baseline at age 40 and then every 2-3 years until age 50 may be a reasonable option. The age of cut off for mammography is not clear. It is not so much the numerical age as the physiologic age of the patient that matters. However, there is no clear-cut benefit beyond age 75.

This does not apply to high-risk patients such as patients with a gene e.g., BRCA mutation who may need MRI screening yearly along with mammography starting at earlier ages. Patents with 2-4 fold increase risk of breast cancer should also consider yearly mammogram between ages of 50-75 and every other year starting at age 40.

Risk factors typically include genetic mutations such as BRCA, early onset of menstrual cycles, late onset of menopause, late or no childbirths etc. 

So, why the controversy regarding screening when studies have shown a decrease in mortality? Some of this comes from the potential complications with all screening, such as false positive mammogram possibly leading to anxiety, more frequent imaging, unnecessary biopsies etc. there is a small radiation exposure associated with mammography which in itself can lead to a small risk of breast cancer over a number of years

When routine mammographic screening was first introduced in the US, there was an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, more cancers were diagnosed which has led to the concept of “over diagnosis”. Are we diagnosing small cancers, which may never truly cause any problems during the life span of a woman? Currently, there are no methods available to determine which early cancers may progress to actually cause life-threatening problems in a woman.

This is of major concern as it may lead to treatments such as surgery, radiation etc which may result in harm.

Mortality from breast cancer has been declining over the last few years; some of this has been attributed to screening, but also to the major advances in treatment. The argument is made that patients diagnosed without screening will also likely survive breast cancer with modern day treatments.

However this generalization does not take into account that without awareness of screening and education as well as close relationship with a family physician or gynecologist many of these cancers may be diagnosed at a late stage leading to increased mortality once again from breast cancer. We have made too much progress to return to Ground zero. There should be a well thought out, individualized plan for each woman in conjunction with her Primary provider taking into account her risk and preferences. Mammography guidelines serve as a good template for such a tailored plan.