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Liver Cancer treatment through surgeryxchange


Liver cancer is the cancer that starts in the cells of your liver. Your liver is a football-sized organ that assembles in the upper right part of abdomen, beneath your diaphragm and above your stomach.

Numerous types of cancer can formulate in the liver from which the most common type of liver cancer is hepatocellular carcinoma, which begins in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte). Other types of liver cancer, such as intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma, are very uncommon.


  1. Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very common type of primary liver cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs mainly in people with chronic liver diseases, such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or hepatitis C infection.

  1. Cholangiocarcinoma

Cholangiocarcinoma is cancer that creates in the bile duct, that carry the digestive fluid bile. It connects your liver to your gallbladder and to your small intestine. This condition, also known as bile duct cancer, is an uncommon form of cancer that occurs mostly in people older than age 50, though it can occur at any age.


  • Jaundice
  • Penetratingly itchy skin
  • White-colored stools
  • Fatigue
  • Abdominal pain
  • Unplanned weight loss


It is not known what the roots of most cases of liver cancer are. But in some cases, the cause is known. For example, chronic infection with certain hepatitis viruses can cause liver cancer.

Liver cancer happens when liver cells develop changes in their DNA the material that provides instructions for every chemical process in your body. DNA mutations cause changes in these instructions. One result is that cells may begin to grow out of control and eventually form a tumor which is a mass of cancerous cells.


Elements that rise the risk of liver cancer contain:

  • Prolonged infection with HBV or HCV. Prolonged infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) rises risk of liver cancer.
  • Cirrhosis. This enhancing and irretrievable condition causes scar tissue to form in liver and spreads the possibilities of developing the liver cancer.
  • Some inherited liver diseases. Liver illness that increase the risk of liver cancer.
  • Diabetes.People with this blood sugar condition have a greater risk of liver cancer than those who don’t have diabetes.
  • Fatty liver disease. The growth of fat in the liver upsurges the risk of liver cancer.
  • Extreme alcohol consumption. Drinking more than an average amount of alcohol daily over many years can lead to liver damage and increases the risk of liver cancer.


Decrease the possibility of cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is marking of the liver, and it increases the risk of liver cancer. You can decrease the risk of cirrhosis if you:

  • Drink alcohol in control, if at all.
  • Maintain good physical shape.

Get vaccinated against hepatitis B

You can decrease your risk of hepatitis B by getting the hepatitis B vaccine, which offers more than 90 percent security for both adults and children. The vaccine can be given to everyone, to those with compromised immune systems.

Take steps to prevent hepatitis C

No vaccination for hepatitis C subsists, but you can reduce your risk of infection.

  • You should check the health status of any sexual partner.
  • Do not use intravenous (IV) medication, but if you have to do, then use a clean needle.
  • Look for a safe, clean shops when you get a piercing or tattoo.



Assessments and techniques used to diagnose liver cancer contain:

  • Blood tests.
  • Imaging tests.
  • Taking out a sample of liver tissue for testing.


Once the liver cancer is diagnosed, your doctor will work to check the stage of cancer. The stage tests helps to determine the size and location of cancer and whether it has spread. The image tests like CT, MRI and bone scan are used to get information about liver cancer stage.


Liver cancer treatment options may include:

  • Surgery to eliminate a part of the liver. In some cases, doctor may recommend fractional hepatectomy, i.e. to remove the liver cancer and a small part of healthy tissue that ambiances it if your tumor is small and your liver function is good.
  • Liver transplant surgery. During the surgery, your unhealthy liver is removed and replaced with a healthy liver from a donor. Liver transplant surgery is only recommended for a small percentage of patients with early-stage liver cancer.
  • Freezing cancer cells. Cryoablation uses extreme cold to destroy cancer cells. During the procedure, your doctor puts an instrument comprising of liquid nitrogen directly onto liver tumors. Ultrasound images are used to help the cryoprobe and monitor the freezing of the cells.
  • Heating cancer cells. In a practice which is called radiofrequency ablation, an electric current is used to heat and damage the cancer cells. Using an ultrasound or CT scan, your medical practitioner inserts one or more thin needles into small cuts in your abdomen. When the needles reach the tumor, they are heated with an electric current, destroying the cancer cells.
  • Injecting alcohol into the tumor. During alcohol injection, pure alcohol is injected directly into tumors, either through the skin or during an operation. Alcohol causes the tumor cells to die.
  • Injecting chemotherapy drugs into the liver. Chemotherapy treatment which deliveries strong anti-cancer medicine directly to the liver. During the process, chemotherapy drugs are injected into the hepatic artery and then the artery is blocked. This helps to block the blood flow to the cancer cells and to send chemotherapy drugs to the cancer cells.
  • Radiation therapy. This treatment uses high-powered energy beams to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. During the treatment, you lie down on a table and a machine guides the energy beams at an exact point on your body. Radiation therapy for liver cancer may involve a technique called stereotactic radiosurgery that simultaneously emphases many beams of radiation at one point in the body.
  • Targeted drug therapy. Targeted drugs work by hindering with a tumor’s ability to produce new blood vessels.

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Avascular Necrosis

07/12/2018 | Vascular Surgery | No Comments

Avascular necrosis also called osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, or ischemic bonenecrosis, is a condition that occurs when there is lossof blood to the bone. Since bone is the living tissue thatrequires blood, an interruption to the blood supply causes bone to die. This condition is most common in people between the ages of 30and 50.

Possible causes of avascular necrosis include:

  1. Dislocation or fracture of thighbone: This can alter the blood stream to the bone, which can lead to shock-allied avascular necrosis. It may develop in 20% or more of people who dislocate of the hip.
  2. Long use of steroid: Use of these drugs, either orally or intravenously, is associated with 35% of all cases of non-traumatic AVN. These materials gather in the blood vessels, making them narrower, and reduces the amount of blood to the bone.
  3. Extreme alcohol use: Much like corticosteroids, excessive alcohol may cause fatty substances to build in the blood vessels and decrease the blood supply to the bones.
  4. Blood clots, tenderness, and destruction to the arteries.

 Symptoms of Avascular Necrosis

In the early stages, it shows no symptoms; however, as the disease evolvesit becomes painful. At first, you may get pain when you put pressure on the infected bone. Then, pain may become get constant. If the infection advances and thebone and nearby joint breakdown, you can experience severe pain that restrictsthe ability to use your joint.

Treatment for Avascular Necrosis

The aims of treatment for avascular necrosis is to improve the function of the infected joint, discontinue the development of bone damage, and decrease pain.

The best treatment will depend on factors, including:

  • Age.
  • Stage of the disease.
  • Location and amount of bone damage.
  • Cause of AVN.

If the cause of your avascular necrosis is found out, treatment will comprise of the efforts to manage the underlying condition. For example, if it is caused by blood clots, doctor will recommend medicines to dissolve gobs. If swelling of the arteries is responsible, doctor may recommend anti-inflammatory drugs.

While these nonsurgical treatments may slow the development of it, most people with the condition finally need surgery.

Medical possibilities comprises of :

  • Bone grafts, involves the removal of healthy bone from one part of the body and use it to replace the damaged bone.
  • Osteotomy, procedure that includes cutting the bone and changing the alignment to relieve stress on the bone or joint.
  • Total joint replacement, removing the damaged joint and replacing it with a synthetic joint.
  • Core decompression, a process that includes eliminating parts of the inside of the bone to release the pressure and allow new blood vessels to form.
  • Vascularized bone graft, is a technique that uses the patient’s tissue to reconstruct unhealthy or broken hip joints.

Risk factors for developing avascular necrosis include:

  • Strain: Injuries, such as hip dislocation or fracture, can damage nearby blood vessels and reduce blood flow to bones.
  • Steroid: Use of high-dose corticosteroids, such as prednisone, is a common cause of avascular necrosis.
  • Excessive use of alcohol: Regular drinking for several years may create fatty deposits to form in your blood vessels.
  • Bisphosphonate use: Long period use of pills for the growth of bone density can help to developing osteonecrosis of the jaw.
  • Some medical cures: Radiationtherapy for cancer can weaken bone.


Factors helping you prevent avascular necrosis:

  • Avoid alcohol.
  • Keep your cholesterol levels low.
  • Avoid use of high-dose steroids.
  • Do not smoke.


05/12/2018 | Spine Surgery | No Comments

The body part spine states to the lower back, wherever the inner spine curves towards the abdomen. “Lumbar” is ensuant from the latin word “lumbus,” that means lion, and also the body part spine earns its name. It is created for each power and adaptability.

It has many completely different characteristics:

  • The lower the bone is within the vertebral column, the additional weight it should bear. The 5 vertebrae of the body part spine (L1-L5) area unit the most important unfused vertebrae within the vertebral column, sanction native them to support the burden of the complete body part.
  • The body part spine’s lowest 2spinal segments, L4-L5 and L5-S1, that embrace the vertebrae and discs, bear the foremost weight and area unit thus the foremost liable to degradation and injury.
  • The body part spine meets the bone at the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). This joint permits for significant rotation, so the pelvis and hips might swing once walking and running.
  • The lower the bone is within the vertebral column, the additional weight it should bear. The 5 vertebrae of the body part spine (L1-L5) area unit the most important unfused vertebrae within the vertebral column, sanction native them to support the burden of the complete body part.
  • The body part spine’s lowest 2spinal segments, L4-L5 and L5-S1, that embrace the vertebrae and discs, bear the foremost weight and area unit thus the foremost liable to degradation and injury.
  • The body part spine meets the bone at the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). This joint permits for significant rotation, so the pelvis and hips might swing once walking and running.
  • The lower spine curves slightly inward, toward the abdomen. This inward curve of the spine is termed spinal curvature.

Lumbar bone phase

Physicians typically make a case for a patient’s pathology by specializing in one bone phase, or spinal phase. The body part spine has five bone segments, termed body part phase one through five (e.g. L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5).
Each body part spine phase is comprised of:

  • Two vertebrae, likeL4-L5, stacked vertically with Associate in Nursingsaucer between them. A healthy disc is padded, with loads of water, and contains a sponge-like substance. It acts sort of a shock within the spine, permitting flexibility and providing protection from jarring movements.
  • The 2adjacent vertebrae area unit connected within the back of the spine by 2 little joints referred to as side joints. The side joints of the body part spine permit movement to bend and twist the low back altogether directions.
  • These area uni nerves that branch aloof from the vertebral column at every level of the spine. They taste little holes within the back of the lower spine. They then connect along to make the nerves, that travels into the legs down the rear of every thigh and into the calves and feet.

Doctors typically remark a patient’s body part disc drawback, or nerve or alternative lower back drawback, because the level that has 2 vertebrae and also the disc between them, like L3-L4 or L4-L5. If the disc at the terribly bottom of the spine is affected, that phase is termed the lumbosacral joint L5-S1 (the S stands for sacral, that area unit the segments below the body part spine).

The following outlines the additional common causes of lower back pain:

Muscular issues

The most common reason for lower back pain is muscle strain or alternative muscle issues. Strain thanks to work, bending, or alternative arduous or repetitive use are often quite painful, however, muscle strains typically heal among some days or weeks.
Degenerated Discs

Intervertebral discs area unit spongy pads that act as shock absorbers between every of the body part spine’s vertebrae. Disc degeneration will produce pain within the disk space. This condition is often brought up with many various terms – on this website it’s systematically termed “degenerative disc sickness.”

Lumbar Disc rupture

Herniated discs area unit commonest within the body part spine. A slipped disc might happen suddenly thanks to injury or work or happen slowly as a vicinity of general wear and tear on the spine. Leg pain (sciatica) is that the commonest symptom of a slipped disc.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
The sacroiliac joint, that connects with very cheap of the body part spine and also the prime of the tailbone, will cause lower back pain and/or neuralgia pain if there’s any variety of dysfunction within the joint that enables an excessive amount of movement or restricts traditional movement.


Spondylolisthesis happens once one bone slips forward over the one below it. The slip most typically happens within the lower body part vertebrae (e.g. L4 –L5 or L5 – S1). If the slipped bone compresses the nerve root at that level, it may result in leg pain and presumably foot pain.


Osteoarthritis within the lower back is usually referred to as side joint inflammatory disease. Aging and wear and tear will cause the gristle covering the side joints within the back of the spine to become worn and worn. Excess friction will turn out bone spurs and joint swelling that cause tenderness, the pressure to the nerve, and restricted vary of motion.

Lumbar stricture

The narrowing of the vertebral canal or nerve root canals (gaps wherever the nerve endings taste as they exit the spinal column) can cause the nerve endings to be squeezed, leading to leg pain, tingling, numbness, and even issue walking. This narrowing is commonly the results of bone spurs and joint swelling from degenerative joint disease.

Lumbar Spine Surgery Techniques

Lumbar decompression procedures area unit typically performed from the posterior (back) and embrace the techniques below.

Foraminotomy: once disc material and/or bone spurs press against a nerve exiting the gap (nerve passageway), a foraminotomy is also performed. Otomy is that the medical term for creating a gap. A foraminotomy makes the gap of the gap larger and relieves nervous disorder.

Laminotomy and Laminectomy: To access disc material offensive the vertebral canal, a tiny low gap is created within the plate. Throughout a cutting out, all or a part of the plate is removed (ectomy is that the medical term for removal of). A cutting out is performed to alleviate funiculus compression or to achieve access to a disc from the rear. cutting out is commonly accustomed treat body part spinal stricture, a narrowing of the vertebral canal generally caused by an inflammatory disease.

Facetectomy: Involves a whole or partial removal of the side joint. A facetectomy is performed to cut back nerve root compression or to achieve access to disk space.

Discectomy: Surgical removal of all or a part of a disc. Discectomy is often performed from the posterior (back) or front (anterior) through the cavity to achieve the spine.

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Spina Bifida

01/12/2018 | Spine Surgery | No Comments

Spina bifida through SurgeryXchange

Spina bifida is a birth defect which takes place when the spine and spinal cord don’t form correctly. It comes under the wide category of neural tube defects. The neural tube is the embryonic construction that ultimately develops into the baby’s brain, spinal cord, and tissues that surround them. Usually, the neural tube forms early in pregnancy, and it closes by the 28th day after formation. In babies with spina bifida, a part of the neural tube fails to grow or close properly, causes the faults in the spinal cord and in the bones of the spine.

Types of Spina Bifida

  1. Meningocele

In a form of spina bifida called meningocele, the protective tissues around the spinal cord drive out through the opening in the vertebrae, creating a sac filled with liquid. But this sac doesn’t contain spinal cord, so nerve injury is less likely to happen, however, later complications are possible.

  1. Spina bifida occulta

The mildest form, spina bifida occulta results in a minor separation or gap in one or more of the bones of the spine. Several people who have it don’t even know it, except the condition is discovered during an imaging test done for unrelated reasons.

  1. Myelomeningocele

It is also known as open spina bifida, it is the most severe form. The spinal canal is open along with numerous vertebrae in lower or middle back. The tissues and spinal nerves push through this opening at birth, forming a sac on the baby’s back, typically exposing tissues and nerves. This makes the baby prone to life-threatening infections.


Following are the symptoms of spina bifida:

  1. Spina bifida occulta.Since the spinal nerves generally are not involved, typically there are no signs or symptoms. However, evident signs may sometimes be seen on the newborn’s skin above the spinal defect, including an abnormal tuft of hair, or a small dimple or birthmark.
  2. The membranes near the spinal cord push out through an opening in the vertebrae, creating a sac filled with fluid, but this sac does not include the spinal cord.
  3. In this severe form of spina bifida:
    1. The spinal canal remains open along several vertebrae in the lower or middle back.
    2. Both the membranes and the spinal cord or nerves protrude at birth, forming a sac.
  • Tissues and nerves usually are exposed, though sometimes skin covers the sac.

Risk and Complications

Risks include:

  • Family history of neural tube defects. Couples who have had one child with a neural tube defect have higher chances of having another baby with the same defect. The risk increases if two previous children are having the same condition.
  • Some medications. For example, anti-seizure medications, such as valproic acid (Depakene), seem to cause neural tube defects when taken during pregnancy, possibly because they interfere with the body’s ability to use folate and folic acid.
  • Women having diabetes with no control over their blood sugar level have a higher risk of having a baby with spina bifida.
  • Pre-pregnancy obesity can increase the risk of neural tube birth defects, including spina bifida.


Get folic acid first

It is important to have a good amount of folic acid in your system during the early weeks of pregnancy to prevent spina bifida. Most women don’t discover that they’re pregnant until this time, experts say that all women of childbearing age should take a daily supplement of 400 micrograms (mcg) of folic acid.

Various foods, including enriched bread, pasta, rice, and some breakfast cereals, are fortified with 400 mcg of folic acid per serving.

Planning pregnancy

If you are trying to conceive, most pregnancy experts believe supplementation of at least 400 mcg of folic acid a day is the best approach for women planning a pregnancy.

Your body does not absorb folate as easily as it absorbs synthetic folic acid, and most people do not get the recommended amount of folate through diet alone, so vitamin supplements are necessary to prevent spina bifida.

To eat a healthy diet, with foods rich in folate or enriched with folic acid. This vitamin is naturally in following:

  • Citrus fruits and juices.
  • Egg yolks.
  • Dark green vegetables.



24/09/2018 | Cosmetic | No Comments

Septoplasty through surgeryxchange

This is the procedure in which the displaced bone and cartilage that divides the two nostrils is repositioned. During the procedure, the nasal septum is straightened and relocated to the middle of your nose. This may involve the surgeon to cut and eliminate parts of the nasal septum before reinserting them in the correct position.

Why you need a septoplasty?

If you are having some deviation of the septum, it is common. When a deviated septum is serious, it can block one side of your nose and reduce airflow, causing difficulty in breathing through one or both sides of your nose. The added exposure of deviated septum to the drying effect of airflow through the nose may sometimes contribute to crusting or bleeding in certain individuals. It helps in straightening the nasal septum by trimming, relocation and substituting the cartilage, bone or both. If you have symptoms, like, difficulty in breathing through the nose that considerably affects your life, you may need a surgery to correct a deviated septum.

How to prepare?

Before arranging for septoplasty, you should meet with your surgeon to discuss the benefits and risks of the surgery. This meeting generally includes:

  • Your medical history. Your doctor will ask questions about conditions you have or had, as well as any current medications.
  • Physical checkup. The doctor will conduct a physical examination, which includes any relevant testing. The doctor will also observe your skin and the inside and outside of your nose.
  • The Photographs of your nose may be taken from different angles. The doctor can use these photos for conversation before or after surgery.
  • A discussion of your expectations. You and your doctor must exchange your thoughts about the outlooks.

Food and medications

It is suggested that you avoid medications which contain aspirin or ibuprofen for at least two weeks before surgery and after surgery. These medications may increase bleeding. Take only medications which are approved or prescribed by the surgeon.

Other precautions

If you smoke,  it is suggested that you stop smoking. Smoking could disturb the healing process after surgery.

How it is executed?

It requires local or general anesthesia, according to your surgeon’s choice and on how complex surgery is.

  • Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia restricts your nose. The doctor will inject the anesthesia into the nasal tissues. The medication will make you dazed but not fully unconscious.
  • General anesthesia: In this type of anesthesia, you inhale an anesthetic agent or receive an anesthetic through an IV line. It affects your whole body and induces a temporary state of unconsciousness.

Have a discussion with the doctor beforehand of which type of anesthesia will suit you.

During the surgery, the cut is closed usually with an absorbable stitch. Soft silicone straps will be inserted in each nostril to support the septum. To avoid bleeding after the operation, the doctor will place bandage-like material in your nose.

Recovery Process

Depending on the extent of the surgery, you may not be asked to comply with all of them:

  • Avoid vigorous events, such as aerobics and jogging.
  • Don’t blow your nose.
  • Uplift your head while sleeping.
  • Wear clothes that fasten in the front; don’t pull clothing, such as shirts or sweaters, over your head.

Risks involved

Possible risks specific to Septoplasty include:

  • Excessive bleeding.
  • The shape of the nose may change.
  • An opening in the septum.
  • A decrease in the sense of smell.

Who we are?

SurgeryXchange is an online platform to reduce the cost of hospitalization in India. The Social objective of right healthcare for all through access and affordability is addressed by SurgeryXchange. Get the right doctors, hospitals and be sure you need the surgery through our medical second opinion. SurgeryXchange also helps patients from Africa and other countries with easy access to medical care in India. For more details visit-