LUMBAR SPINE

The body part spine states to the lower back, wherever the inner spine curves towards the abdomen. “Lumbar” is ensuant from the latin word “lumbus,” that means lion, and also the body part spine earns its name. It is created for each power and adaptability.

It has many completely different characteristics:

  • The lower the bone is within the vertebral column, the additional weight it should bear. The 5 vertebrae of the body part spine (L1-L5) area unit the most important unfused vertebrae within the vertebral column, sanction native them to support the burden of the complete body part.
  • The body part spine’s lowest 2spinal segments, L4-L5 and L5-S1, that embrace the vertebrae and discs, bear the foremost weight and area unit thus the foremost liable to degradation and injury.
  • The body part spine meets the bone at the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). This joint permits for significant rotation, so the pelvis and hips might swing once walking and running.
  • The lower the bone is within the vertebral column, the additional weight it should bear. The 5 vertebrae of the body part spine (L1-L5) area unit the most important unfused vertebrae within the vertebral column, sanction native them to support the burden of the complete body part.
  • The body part spine’s lowest 2spinal segments, L4-L5 and L5-S1, that embrace the vertebrae and discs, bear the foremost weight and area unit thus the foremost liable to degradation and injury.
  • The body part spine meets the bone at the lumbosacral joint (L5-S1). This joint permits for significant rotation, so the pelvis and hips might swing once walking and running.
  • The lower spine curves slightly inward, toward the abdomen. This inward curve of the spine is termed spinal curvature.

Lumbar bone phase

Physicians typically make a case for a patient’s pathology by specializing in one bone phase, or spinal phase. The body part spine has five bone segments, termed body part phase one through five (e.g. L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5).
Each body part spine phase is comprised of:

  • Two vertebrae, likeL4-L5, stacked vertically with Associate in Nursingsaucer between them. A healthy disc is padded, with loads of water, and contains a sponge-like substance. It acts sort of a shock within the spine, permitting flexibility and providing protection from jarring movements.
  • The 2adjacent vertebrae area unit connected within the back of the spine by 2 little joints referred to as side joints. The side joints of the body part spine permit movement to bend and twist the low back altogether directions.
  • These area uni nerves that branch aloof from the vertebral column at every level of the spine. They taste little holes within the back of the lower spine. They then connect along to make the nerves, that travels into the legs down the rear of every thigh and into the calves and feet.

Doctors typically remark a patient’s body part disc drawback, or nerve or alternative lower back drawback, because the level that has 2 vertebrae and also the disc between them, like L3-L4 or L4-L5. If the disc at the terribly bottom of the spine is affected, that phase is termed the lumbosacral joint L5-S1 (the S stands for sacral, that area unit the segments below the body part spine).

The following outlines the additional common causes of lower back pain:

Muscular issues

The most common reason for lower back pain is muscle strain or alternative muscle issues. Strain thanks to work, bending, or alternative arduous or repetitive use are often quite painful, however, muscle strains typically heal among some days or weeks.
Degenerated Discs

Intervertebral discs area unit spongy pads that act as shock absorbers between every of the body part spine’s vertebrae. Disc degeneration will produce pain within the disk space. This condition is often brought up with many various terms – on this website it’s systematically termed “degenerative disc sickness.”

Lumbar Disc rupture

Herniated discs area unit commonest within the body part spine. A slipped disc might happen suddenly thanks to injury or work or happen slowly as a vicinity of general wear and tear on the spine. Leg pain (sciatica) is that the commonest symptom of a slipped disc.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction
The sacroiliac joint, that connects with very cheap of the body part spine and also the prime of the tailbone, will cause lower back pain and/or neuralgia pain if there’s any variety of dysfunction within the joint that enables an excessive amount of movement or restricts traditional movement.

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis happens once one bone slips forward over the one below it. The slip most typically happens within the lower body part vertebrae (e.g. L4 –L5 or L5 – S1). If the slipped bone compresses the nerve root at that level, it may result in leg pain and presumably foot pain.

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis within the lower back is usually referred to as side joint inflammatory disease. Aging and wear and tear will cause the gristle covering the side joints within the back of the spine to become worn and worn. Excess friction will turn out bone spurs and joint swelling that cause tenderness, the pressure to the nerve, and restricted vary of motion.

Lumbar stricture

The narrowing of the vertebral canal or nerve root canals (gaps wherever the nerve endings taste as they exit the spinal column) can cause the nerve endings to be squeezed, leading to leg pain, tingling, numbness, and even issue walking. This narrowing is commonly the results of bone spurs and joint swelling from degenerative joint disease.

Lumbar Spine Surgery Techniques

Lumbar decompression procedures area unit typically performed from the posterior (back) and embrace the techniques below.

Foraminotomy: once disc material and/or bone spurs press against a nerve exiting the gap (nerve passageway), a foraminotomy is also performed. Otomy is that the medical term for creating a gap. A foraminotomy makes the gap of the gap larger and relieves nervous disorder.

Laminotomy and Laminectomy: To access disc material offensive the vertebral canal, a tiny low gap is created within the plate. Throughout a cutting out, all or a part of the plate is removed (ectomy is that the medical term for removal of). A cutting out is performed to alleviate funiculus compression or to achieve access to a disc from the rear. cutting out is commonly accustomed treat body part spinal stricture, a narrowing of the vertebral canal generally caused by an inflammatory disease.

Facetectomy: Involves a whole or partial removal of the side joint. A facetectomy is performed to cut back nerve root compression or to achieve access to disk space.

Discectomy: Surgical removal of all or a part of a disc. Discectomy is often performed from the posterior (back) or front (anterior) through the cavity to achieve the spine.

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