Liver cancer is cancer that begins in the cells of the liver. The liver is a football-sized organ that sits in the upper right portion of your abdomen, beneath your diaphragm and above your stomach.
Several types of cancer can form in the liver. The most common type of liver cancer is a hepatocellular carcinoma, which begins in the main type of liver cell (hepatocyte).
Most people don't have signs and symptoms in the early stages of primary liver cancer. When signs and symptoms do appear, they may include:
Losing weight without trying
Loss of appetite
Upper abdominal pain
Nausea and vomiting
General weakness and fatigue
Yellow discoloration of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice)
White, chalky stools
It's not clear what causes most cases of liver cancer. But in some cases, the cause is known. For instance, chronic infection with certain hepatitis viruses can cause liver cancer. Liver cancer treatments have various benefits.
Factors that increase the risk of primary liver cancer include:
Chronic infection with HBV or HCV. Chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) increases your risk of liver cancer.
Cirrhosis. This progressive and irreversible condition causes scar tissue to form in your liver and increases your chances of developing liver cancer.
Certain inherited liver diseases. Liver diseases that can make chances of more risk of liver cancer include hemochromatosis and Wilson's disease.
Diabetes. People with this blood sugar disorder have a greater risk of liver cancer than those who don't have diabetes.
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A huge collection of fat in the liver increases the risk of liver cancer.
Exposure to aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are poisons produced by molds that grow on crops that are stored poorly. Crops such as corn and peanuts can become contaminated with aflatoxins, which can end up in foods made of these products. In the United States, safety regulations limit aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contamination is more common in certain parts of Africa and Asia.
Excessive alcohol consumption. Consuming more than a moderate amount of alcohol daily over many years can lead to irreversible liver damage and increase your risk of liver cancer.
Reduce your risk of cirrhosis
Cirrhosis is scarring of the liver, and it increases the risk of liver cancer. You can reduce your risk of cirrhosis if you:
Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. If you choose to drink alcohol, limit the amount you drink. For women, this means no more than one drink a day. For men, this means no more than two drinks a day.
Maintain a healthy weight. If your current weight is healthy, work to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, reduce the number of calories you eat each day and increase the amount of exercise you do. Aim to lose weight slowly — 1 or 2 pounds (0.5 to 1 kilograms) each week.
Use caution with chemicals. Follow instructions on chemicals you use at home or at work.
Get vaccinated against hepatitis B
You can reduce your risk of hepatitis B by receiving the hepatitis B vaccine, which provides more than 90 percent protection for both adults and children. The vaccine can be given to almost anyone, including infants, older adults and those with compromised immune systems.
No vaccine for hepatitis C exists, but you can reduce your risk of infection.
Don't use intravenous (IV) drugs, but if you do, use a clean needle. Reduce your risk of HCV by not injecting illegal drugs. But if that isn't an option for you, make sure any needle you use is sterile, and don't share it.
Seek safe, clean shops when getting a piercing or tattoo. Needles that may not be properly sterilized can spread the hepatitis C virus. Before getting a piercing or tattoo, check out the shops in your area and ask staff members about their safety practices. If employees at a shop refuse to answer your questions or don't take your questions seriously, take that as a sign that the facility isn't right for you.